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Belgic (or Netherlands) Confession of Faith, Articles 1-13

That there is One Only God.

We all believe
with the heart, and confess with the mouth, that there is one only simple
and spiritual Being, which we call God; and that he is eternal, incomprehensible,
invisible, immutable, infinite, almighty, perfectly wise, just, good,
and the overflowing fountain of all good.

By what means God is made known unto us.

We know
him by two means: first, by the creation, preservation and government
of the universe; which is before our eyes as a most elegant book, wherein
all creatures, great and small, are as so many characters leading us to
contemplate the invisible things of God, namely, his power and divinity,
as the apostle Paul saith, Romans
. All which things are sufficient to convincemen, and leave them
without excuse. Secondly, he makes himself more clearly and fully known
to us by his holy and divine Word, that is to say, as far as is necessary
for us to know in this life, to his glory and our salvation.

Article 3:
Of the written Word of God.

We confess
that this Word of God was not sent, nor delivered by the will of man,
but that holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost, as
the apostle Peter saith. And that afterwards God, from a special care,
which he has for us and our salvation, commanded his servants, the prophets
and apostles, to commit his revealed word to writing; and he himself wrote
with his own finger, the two tables of the law. Therefore we call such
writings holy and divine Scriptures.

Canonical Books of the Holy Scripture.

We believe
that the Holy Scriptures are contained in two books, namely, the Old and
New Testament, which are canonical, against which nothing can be alleged.
These are thus named in the Church of God. The books of the Old Testament
are, the five books of Moses, namely: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers,
Deuteronomy; the books of Joshua, Ruth, Judges, the two books of Samuel,
the two of the Kings, two books of the Chronicles, commonly called Paralipomenon,
the first of Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, the Psalms of David, the three
books of Solomon, namely, the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of
Songs; the four great prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel; and
the twelve lesser prophets, namely, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah,
Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.

Those of
the New Testament are the four evangelists, namely: Matthew, Mark, Luke,
and John; the Acts of the Apostles; the fourteen epistles of the apostle
Paul, namely: one to the Romans, two to the Corinthians, one to the Galatians,
one to the Ephesians, one to the Philippians, one to the Colossians, two
to the Thessalonians, two to Timothy, one to Titus, one to Philemon, and
one to the Hebrews; the seven epistles of the other apostles, namely,
one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude; and the Revelation
of the apostle John.

From whence the Holy Scriptures derive their dignity and authority.

We receive
all these books, and these only, as holy and canonical, for the regulation,
foundation, and confirmation of our faith; believing without any doubt,
all things contained in them, not so much because the Church receives
and approves them as such, but more especially because the Holy Ghost
witnesseth in our hearts, that they are from God, whereof they carry the
evidence in themselves. For the very blind are able to perceive that the
things foretold in them are fulfilling.

Article 6:
The difference between the canonical and apocryphal books.

We distinguish
those sacred books from the apocryphal, namely: the third book of Esdras,
the books of Tobias, Judith, Wisdom, Jesus Syrach, Baruch, the appendix
to the book of Esther, the Song of the three Children in the Furnace,
the history of Susannah, of Bell and the Dragon, the prayer of Manasses,
and the two books of the Maccabees. All of which the Church may read and
take instruction from, so far as they agree with the canonical books;
but they are far from having such power and efficacy, as that we may from
their testimony confirm any point of faith, or of the Christian religion;
much less detract from the authority of the other sacred books.

The sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures, to be the only rule of

We believe
that those Holy Scriptures fully contain the will of God, and that whatsoever
man ought to believe, unto salvation, is sufficiently taught therein.
For, since the whole manner of worship, which God requires of us, is written
in them at large, it is unlawful for any one, though an apostle, to teach
otherwise than we are now taught in the Holy Scriptures: nay, though it
were an angel from heaven, as the apostle Paul saith. For, since it is
forbidden, to add unto or take away anything from the word of God, it
doth thereby evidently appear, that the doctrine thereof is most perfect
and complete in all respects. Neither do we consider of equal value any
writing of men, however holy these men may have been, with those divine
Scriptures, nor ought we to consider custom, or the great multitude, or
antiquity, or succession of times and persons, or councils, decrees or
statutes, as of equal value with the truth of God, for the truth is above
all; for all men are of themselves liars, and more vain than vanity itself.
Therefore, we reject with all our hearts, whatsoever doth not agree with
this infallible rule, which the apostles have taught us, saying, Try the
spirits whether they are of God. Likewise, if there come any unto you,
and bring not this doctrine, receive him not into your house.

That God is one in Essence, yet nevertheless distinguished in three

to this truth and this Word of God, we believe in one only God, who is
the one single essence, in which are three persons, really, truly, and
eternally distinct, according to their incommunicable properties; namely,
the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost. The Father is the cause,
origin and beginning of all things visible and invisible; the Son is the
word, wisdom, and image of the Father; the Holy Ghost is the eternal power
and might, proceeding from the Father and the Son. Nevertheless God is
not by this distinction divided into three, since the Holy Scriptures
teach us, that the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, have each
his personality, distinguished by their properties; but in such wise that
these three persons are but one only God. Hence then, it is evident, that
the Father is not the Son, nor the Son the Father, and likewise the Holy
Ghost is neither the Father nor the Son. Nevertheless these persons thus
distinguished are not divided, nor intermixed: for the Father hath not
assumed the flesh, nor hath the Holy Ghost, but the Son only. The Father
hath never been without his Son, or without his Holy Ghost. For they are
all three co-eternal and co-essential. There is neither first nor last:
for they are all three one, in truth, in power, in goodness, and in mercy.

The proof of the foregoing article of the Trinity of persons in
one God.

All this
we know, as well from the testimonies of holy writ, as from their operations,
and chiefly by those we feel in ourselves. The testimonies of the Holy
Scriptures, that teach us to believe this Holy Trinity are written in
many places of the Old Testament, which are not so necessary to enumerate,
as to choose them out with discretion and judgment. In Genesis, chapter
,God saith: Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, etc.
So God created man in his own image, male and female created he them.
And Genesis
.Behold the man is become as one of us. From this saying, let
us make man in our image, it appears that there are more persons than
one in the Godhead; and when he saith, God created, he signifies the unity.
It is true that he doth not say how many persons there are, but that,
which appears to us somewhat obscure in the Old Testament, is very plain
in the New. For when our Lord was baptized in Jordan, the voice of the
Father was heard, saying, This is my beloved Son: the Son was seen in
the water, and the Holy Ghost appeared in the shape of a dove. This form
is also instituted by Christ in the baptism of all believers. Baptize
all nations, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Ghost. In the Gospel of Luke, the angel Gabriel thus addressed Mary, the
mother of our Lord, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power
of the Highest shall overshadow thee, therefore also that holy thing,
which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God: likewise,
the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion
of the Holy Ghost be with you. And there are three that bear record in
heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, and these three are
one. In all which places we are fully taught, that there are three persons
in one only divine essence. And although this doctrine far surpasses all
human understanding, nevertheless, we now believe it by means of the Word
of God, but expect hereafter to enjoy the perfect knowledge and benefit
thereof in Heaven. Moreover, we must observe the particular offices and
operations of these three persons toward us. The Father is called our
Creator, by his power; the Son is our Savior and Redeemer, by his blood;
the Holy Ghost is our Sanctifier, by his dwelling in our hearts. This
doctrine of the Holy Trinity, hath always been defended and maintained
by the true Church, since the time of the apostles, to this very day,
against the Jews, Mohammedans, and some false Christians and heretics,
as Marcion, Manes, Praxeas, Sabellius, Samosatenus, Arius, and such like,
who have been justly condemned by the orthodox fathers. Therefore, in
this point, we do willingly receive the three creeds, namely, that of
the Apostles, of Nice, and of Athanasius: likewise that, which, conformable
thereunto, is agreed upon by the ancient fathers.

That Jesus Christ is true and eternal God.

We believe
that Jesus Christ, according to his divine nature, is the only begotten
Son of God, begotten from eternity, not made nor created (for then he
should be a creature), but co-essential and co-eternal with the Father,
the express image of his person, and the brightness of his glory, equal
unto him in all things. He is the Son of God, not only from the time that
he assumed our nature, but from all eternity, as these testimonies, when
compared together, teach us. Moses saith, that God created the world;
and John saith, that all things were made by that Word, which he calleth
God. And the apostle saith, that God make the worlds by his Son; likewise,
that God created all things by Jesus Christ. Therefore it must needs follow,
that he, who is called God, the Word, the Son, and Jesus Christ, did exist
at that time, when all things were created by him. Therefore the prophet
Micah saith, His goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.
And the apostle: He hath neither beginning of days, nor end of life. He
therefore is that true, eternal, and almighty God, whom we invoke, worship
and serve.

That the Holy Ghost is true and eternal God.

We believe
and confess also, that the Holy Ghost, from eternity, proceeds from the
Father and Son; and therefore neither is made, created, nor begotten,
but only proceedeth from both; who in order is the third person of the
Holy Trinity; of one and the same essence, majesty and glory with the
Father, and the Son; and therefore, is the true and eternal God, as the
Holy Scriptures teach us.

Of the Creation.

We believe
that the Father, by the Word, that is, by his Son, hath created of nothing,
the heaven, the earth, and all creatures, as it seemed good unto him,
giving unto every creature its being, shape, form, and several offices
to serve its Creator. That he doth also still uphold and govern them by
his eternal providence, and infinite power, for the service of mankind,
to the end that man may serve his God. He also created the angels good,
to be his messengers and to serve his elect; some of which are fallen
from that excellency, in which God created them, into everlasting perdition;
and the others have, by the grace of God, remained steadfast and continued
in their primitive state. The devils and evil spirits are so depraved,
that they are enemies of God and every good thing, to the utmost of their
power, as murderers, watching to ruin the Church and every member thereof,
and by their wicked stratagems to destroy all; and are, therefore, by
their own wickedness, adjudged to eternal damnation, daily expecting their
horrible torments. Therefore we reject and abhor the error of the Sadducees,
who deny the existence of spirits and angels: and also that of the Manichees,
who assert that the devils have their origin of themselves, and that they
are wicked of their own nature, without having been corrupted.

Of Divine Providence.

We believe
that the same God, after he had created all things, did not forsake them,
or give them up to fortune or chance, but that he rules and governs them
according to his holy will, so that nothing happens in this world without
his appointment: nevertheless, God neither is the author of, nor can be
charged with, the sins which are committed. For his power and goodness
are so great and incomprehensible, that he orders and executes his work
in the most excellent and just manner, even then, when devils and wicked
men act unjustly. And, as to what he doth surpassing human understanding,
we will not curiously inquire into, farther than our capacity will admit
of; but with the greatest humility and reverence adore the righteous judgments
of God, which are hid from us, contenting ourselves that we are disciples
of Christ, to learn only those things which he has revealed to us in his
Word, without transgressing these limits. This doctrine affords us unspeakable
consolation, since we are taught thereby that nothing can befall us by
chance, but by the direction of our most gracious and heavenly Father;
who watches over us with a paternal care, keeping all creatures so under
his power, that not a hair of our head (for they are all numbered), nor
a sparrow, can fall to the ground, without the will of our Father, in
whom we do entirely trust; being persuaded, that he so restrains the devil
and all our enemies, that without his will and permission, they cannot
hurt us. And therefore we reject that damnable error of the Epicureans,
who say that God regards nothing, but leaves all things to chance.

Of the Creation and Fall of man, and his Incapacity to perform
what is truly good.

We believe
that God created man out of the dust of the earth, and made and formed
him after his own image and likeness, good, righteous, and holy, capable
in all things to will, agreeably to the will of God. But being in honor,
he understood it not, neither knew his excellency, but willfully subjected
himself to sin, and consequently to death, and the curse, giving ear to
the words of the devil. For the commandment of life, which he had received,
he transgressed; and by sin separated himself from God, who was his true
life, having corrupted his whole nature; whereby he made himself liable
to corporal and spiritual death. And being thus become wicked, perverse,
and corrupt in all his ways, he hath lost all his excellent gifts, which
he had received from God, and only retained a few remains thereof, which,
however, are sufficient to leave man without excuse; for all the light
which is in us is changed into darkness, as the Scriptures teach us, saying:
The light shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehendeth it not:
where St. John calleth men darkness. Therefore we reject all that is taught
repugnant to this, concerning the free will of man, since man is but a
slave to sin; and has nothing of himself, unless it is given from heaven.
For who may presume to boast, that he of himself can do any good, since
Christ saith, No man can come to me, except the Father, which hath sent
me, draw him? Who will glory in his own will, who understands, that to
be carnally minded is enmity against God? Who can speak of his knowledge,
since the natural man receiveth not the things of the spirit of God? In
short, who dare suggest any thought, since he knows that we are not sufficient
of ourselves to think anything as of ourselves, but that our sufficiency
is of God? And therefore what the apostle saith ought justly to be held
sure and firm, that God worketh in us both to will and to do of his good
pleasure. For there is no will nor understanding, conformable to the divine
will and understanding, but what Christ hath wrought in man; which he
teaches us, when he saith, Without me ye can do nothing.

Of Original Sin.

We believe
that, through the disobedience of Adam, original sin is extended to all
mankind; which is a corruption of the whole nature, and an hereditary
disease, wherewith infants themselves are infected even in their mother’s
womb, and which produceth in man all sorts of sin, being in him as a root
thereof; and therefore is so vile and abominable in the sight of God,
that it is sufficient to condemn all mankind. Nor is it by any means abolished
or done away by baptism; since sin always issues forth from this woeful
source, as water from a fountain; notwithstanding it is not imputed to
the children of God unto condemnation, but by his grace and mercy is forgiven
them. Not that they should rest securely in sin, but that a sense of this
corruption should make believers often to sigh, desiring to be delivered
from this body of death. Wherefore we reject the error of the Pelagians,
who assert that sin proceeds only from imitation.

Of Eternal Election.

We believe
that all the posterity of Adam being thus fallen into perdition and ruin,
by the sin of our first parents, God then did manifest himself such as
he is; that is to say, merciful and just: Merciful, since he delivers
and preserves from this perdition all, whom he, in his eternal and unchangeable
counsel of mere goodness, hath elected in Christ Jesus our Lord, without
any respect to their works: Just, in leaving others in the fall and perdition
wherein they have involved themselves.

Of the Recovery of Fallen Man.

We believe
that our most gracious God, in his admirable wisdom and goodness, seeing
that man had thus thrown himself into temporal and eternal death, and
made himself wholly miserable, was pleased to seek and comfort him, when
he trembling fled from his presence, promising him that he would give
his Son, who should be made of a woman, to bruise the head of the serpent,
and would make him happy.

Article 18:
Of the Incarnation of Jesus Christ.

We confess,
therefore, that God did fulfill the promise, which he made to the fathers,
by the mouth of his holy prophets, when he sent into the world, at the
time appointed by him, his own, only-begotten and eternal Son, who took
upon him the form of a servant, and became like unto man, really assuming
the true human nature, with all its infirmities, sin excepted, being conceived
in the womb of the blessed Virgin Mary, by the power of the Holy Ghost,
without the means of man, and did not only assume human nature as to the
body, but also a true human soul, that he might be a real man. For since
the soul was lost as well as the body, it was necessary that he should
take both upon him, to save both. Therefore we confess (in opposition
to the heresy of the Anabaptists, who deny that Christ assumed human flesh
of his mother) that Christ is become a partaker of the flesh and blood
of the children; that he is a fruit of the loins of David after the flesh;
made of the seed of David according to the flesh; a fruit of the womb
of the Virgin Mary, made of a woman, a branch of David; a shoot of the
root of Jesse; sprung from the tribe of Judah; descended from the Jews
according to the flesh; of the seed of Abraham, since he took on him the
seed of Abraham, and became like unto his brethren in all things, sin
excepted, so that in truth he is our Immanuel, that is to say,
God with us.

Of the union and distinction of the two Natures in the person
of Christ.

We believe
that by this conception, the person of the Son is inseparably united and
connected with the human nature; so that there are not two Sons of God,
nor two persons, but two natures united in one single person: yet, that
each nature retains its own distinct properties. As then the divine nature
hath always remained uncreated, without beginning of days or end of life,
filling heaven and earth: so also hath the human nature not lost its properties,
but remained a creature, having beginning of days, being a finite nature,
and retaining all the properties of a real body. And though he hath by
his resurrection given immortality to the same, nevertheless he hath not
changed the reality of his human nature; forasmuch as our salvation and
resurrection also depend on the reality of his body. But these two natures
are so closely united in one person, that they were not separated even
by his death. Therefore that which he, when dying, commended into the
hands of his Father, was a real human spirit, departing from his body.
But in the meantime the divine nature always remained united with the
human, even when he lay in the grave. And the Godhead did not cease to
be in him, any more than it did when he was an infant, though it did not
so clearly manifest itself for a while. Wherefore we confess, that he
is very God, and very Man: very God by his power to conquer death;
and very man that he might die for us according to the infirmity of his

That God hath manifested his justice and mercy in Christ Jesus.

We believe
that God, who is perfectly merciful and just, sent his Son to assume that
nature, in which the disobedience was committed, to make satisfaction
in the same, and to bear the punishment of sin by his most bitter passion
and death. God therefore manifested his justice against his Son, when
he laid our iniquities upon him; and poured forth his mercy and goodness
on us, who were guilty and worthy of damnation, out of mere and perfect
love, giving his Son unto death for us, and raising him for our justification,
that through him we might obtain immortality and life eternal.

Of the satisfaction of Christ, our only High Priest, for us.

We believe
that Jesus Christ is ordained with an oath to be an everlasting High Priest,
after the order of Melchisedec; and that he hath presented himself in
our behalf before the Father, to appease his wrath by his full satisfaction,
by offering himself on the tree of the cross, and pouring out his precious
blood to purge away our sins; as the prophets had foretold. For it is
written: He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our
iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him, and with his stripes
we are healed. He was brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and numbered
with the transgressors, and condemned by Pontius Pilate as a malefactor,
though he had first declared him innocent. Therefore: he restored that
which he took not away, and suffered, the just for the unjust, as well
in his body as in his soul, feeling the terrible punishment which our
sins had merited; insomuch that his sweat became like unto drops of blood
falling on the ground. He called out, my God, my God, why hast thou forsaken
me? and hath suffered all this for the remission of our sins. Wherefore
we justly say with the apostle Paul: that we know nothing, but Jesus Christ,
and him crucified; we count all things but loss and dung for the excellency
of the knowledge of Christ Jesus our Lord, in whose wounds we find all
manner of consolation. Neither is it necessary to seek or invent any other
means of being reconciled to God, than this only sacrifice, once offered,
by which believers are made perfect forever. This is also the reason why
he was called by the angel of God, Jesus, that is to say, Savior,
because he should save his people from their sins.

Of Faith in Jesus Christ.

We believe
that, to attain the true knowledge of this great mystery, the Holy Ghost
kindleth in our hearts an upright faith, which embraces Jesus Christ,
with all his merits, appropriates him, and seeks nothing more besides
him. For it must needs follow, either that all things, which are requisite
to our salvation, are not in Jesus Christ, or if all things are in him,
that then those who possess Jesus Christ through faith, have complete
salvation in him. Therefore, for any to assert, that Christ is not sufficient,
but that something more is required besides him, would be too gross a
blasphemy: for hence it would follow, that Christ was but half a Savior.
Therefore we justly say with Paul, that we are justified by faith alone,
or by faith without works. However, to speak more clearly, we do not mean,
that faith itself justifies us, for it is only an instrument with which
we embrace Christ our Righteousness. But Jesus Christ, imputing to us
all his merits and so many holy works which he has done for us, and in
our stead, is our Righteousness. And faith is an instrument that keeps
us in communion with him in all his benefits, which, when become ours,
are more than sufficient to acquit us of our sins.

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